Herpetofauna of Europe : amphibians and reptiles of europe - photographic overview
Herpetofauna of Europe European Amphibians & Reptiles

Here is an overview of the entire European herpetofauna as seen by me. Former Soviet states excluded, as well as Asian and African islands politically belonging to European countries (cf. same area as considered by Speybroeck & Crochet (2007) and Speybroeck et al. (2010)). Taxonomy, thus species list, according to Speybroeck et al. (2020), with more recent changes incorporated.

AMPHIBIA - amphibians
Urodela - salamanders & newts
Anura – frogs & toads
REPTILIA - reptiles
Chelonii - tortoises, terrapins and turtles
Sauria - lizards
Amphisbaenia - worm lizards
Serpentes - snakes

AMPHIBIA - amphibians

Urodela - salamanders and newts


Fire Salamander - Salamandra salamandra (Belgium, April 2020)

Corsican Fire Salamander - Salamandra corsica (Corsica, France, August 2019)

Alpine Salamander - Salamandra atra (S Germany, September 2019)

Lanza’s Alpine Salamander - Salamandra lanzai (Cottian Alps, Italy, August 2019)

Southern Spectacled Salamander - Salamandrina terdigitata (PN Pollino, Italy, March 2005)

Northern Spectacled Salamander - Salamandrina perspicillata (Liguria, Italy, September 2023)

Helversen’s or Karpathos Salamander - Lyciasalamandra helverseni (Karpathos, Greece, December 2005)

Golden-striped Salamander - Chioglossa lusitanica (Serra da Estrela, Portugal, September 2005)

Sharp-ribbed Newt - Pleurodeles waltl (Algarve, Portugal, December 2010)

Pyrenean Brook Newt - Calotriton asper (French Pyrenees, July 2020)

Montseny Brook Newt - Calotriton arnoldi (Montseny, Spain, April 2019)

Corsican Brook Newt - Euproctus montanus (Corsica, August 2018)

Sardinian Brook Newt - Euproctus platycephalus (Sette Fratelli, Sardinia, July 2020)

Smooth Newt - Lissotriton vulgaris (C Italy, April 2005)

Greek Smooth Newt - Lissotriton graecus (Buljarica, Montenegro, April 2008)

Palmate Newt - Lissotriton helveticus (Dilsen-Stokkem, Belgium, March 2007)

Italian Newt - Lissotriton italicus (PN Pollino, Italy, March 2005)

Bosca's Newt - Lissotriton boscai (Asturias, Spain, April 2012)

Maltzan's Newt - Lissotriton maltzani (Algarve, Portugal, December 2010)

Montandon’s Newt - Lissotriton montandoni (Piatra Neamt, Romania, May 2007)

Alpine Newt - Ichthyosaura alpestris (Pindos mnts., Greece, May 2013)

Great Crested Newt - Triturus cristatus (Piatra Neamt, Romania, May 2007)

Italian Crested Newt - Triturus carnifex (PN Pollino, Italy, March 2005)

Macedonian Crested Newt - Triturus macedonicus (Prespa Lakes, Greece, May 2004)

Danube Crested Newt - Triturus dobrogicus (Danube delta, Romania, May 2007)

Balkan Crested Newt - Triturus ivanbureschi (Evros prefecture, Greece, May 2013)

Marbled Newt - Triturus marmoratus (C France, April 2019)

Southern Marbled Newt - Triturus pygmaeus (Loja, Andalucia, April 2006)

Banded Newt - Ommatotriton ophryticus x nesterovi (NE Spain, April 2019)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species


Strinati’s Cave Salamander - Speleomantes strinatii (Liguria, Italy, September 2023)

Ambrosi’s Cave Salamander - Speleomantes ambrosii (Liguria, Italy, September 2023)

Italian Cave Salamander - Speleomantes italicus (Pistoia, Italy, September 2023)

Monte Albo Cave Salamander - Speleomantes flavus (Lula, Sardinia, June 2020)

Sopramontane Cave Salamander - Speleomantes supramontis (Dorgali, Sardinia, June 2020)

Scented Cave Salamander - Speleomantes imperialis (C Sardinia, July 2020)

Sette Fratelli Cave Salamander - Speleomantes sarrabusensis (Burcei, Sardinia, July 2020)

Gené’s Cave Salamander - Speleomantes genei (SW Sardinia, July 2020)


Olm - Proteus anguinus (Slovenia, July 2010)

Anura - frogs and toads


African Clawed Toad - Xenopus laevis (Cersay, France, July 2007)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species


Common Midwife Toad - Alytes obstetricans (N Spain, April 2019)

Catalonian Midwife Toad - Alytes almogavarii (Ariège, France, July 2020)

Iberian Midwife Toad - Alytes cisternasii (Andalucia, Spain, April 2006)

Southern Midwife Toad - Alytes dickhilleni (Sierra de Cazorla, Spain, April 2006)

Majorcan Midwife Toad - Alytes muletensis (Majorca, Spain, July 2005)


Painted Frog - Discoglossus pictus (NE Spain, April 2019)

Iberian Painted Frog - Discoglossus galganoi (Galicia, Spain, May 2012)

Tyrrhenian Painted Frog - Discoglossus sardus (Corsica, France, August 2018)

Corsican Painted Frog - Discoglossus montalentii (Corsica, France, August 2018)


Fire-bellied Toad - Bombina bombina (Black Sea coast, Bulgaria, May 2005)

Yellow-bellied Toad - Bombina variegata (NE Greece, May 2013)


Common Spadefoot Toad - Pelobates fuscus (NE France, April 2019)

Western Spadefoot Toad - Pelobates cultripes (N Spain, April 2019)

Balkan Spadefoot Toad - Pelobates balcanicus (Evros, Greece, May 2004)

Eastern Spadefoot Toad - Pelobates syriacus (Black Sea coast, Bulgaria, May 2005)


Parsley Frog - Pelodytes punctatus (C France, June 2011)

Portuguese Parsley Frog - Pelodytes atlanticus (S Portugal, December 2010)

Iberian Parsley Frog - Pelodytes ibericus (Càdiz, Spain, April 2006)


Common Toad - Bufo bufo (N Greece, May 2013)

Spiny Toad - Bufo spinosus (Càdiz, Spain, April 2006)

Natterjack Toad - Epidalea calamita (Belgium, April 2019)

Green Toad - Bufotes viridis (Crete, Greece, June 2009)

African Green Toad - Bufotes boulengeri (ssp. siculus, Sicily, May 2010)


Common Tree Frog - Hyla arborea (C France, April 2019)

Iberian Tree Frog - Hyla molleri (Burgos province, Spain, April 2012)

Eastern Tree Frog - Hyla orientalis (Thrace, Greece, May 2004)

Italian Tree Frog - Hyla intermedia (NE Italy, July 2010)

Tyrrhenian Tree Frog - Hyla sarda (Sette Fratelli, Sardinia, July 2020)

Stripeless Tree Frog - Hyla meridionalis (Liguria, Italy, July 2010)
possibly only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species


Common Frog - Rana temporaria (France, August 2019)

Galician Common Frog - Rana parvipalmata (Asturias, Spain, April 2012)

Pyrenean Stream Frog - Rana pyrenaica (Pyrenees, Spain, August 2017)

Moor Frog - Rana arvalis (Belgium, March 2015)

Agile Frog - Rana dalmatina (C France, July 2008)

Italian Agile Frog - Rana latastei (NW Italy, September 2023)

Iberian Stream Frog - Rana iberica (Asturias, Spain, April 2019)

Italian Stream Frog - Rana italica (Liguria, Italy, November 2013)

Balkan Stream Frog - Rana graeca (Epirus, Greece, August 2020)

Pool Frog - Pelophylax lessonae (S Belgium, June 2005)

Edible Frog - Pelophylax kl. esculentus (Lovendegem, Belgium 2007)

Marsh Frog - Pelophylax ridibundus (Epirus, Greece, August 2020)

Iberian Water Frog - Pelophylax perezi (Majorca, Spain, July 2005)

Graf’s Hybrid Frog - Pelophylax kl. grafi (Lac du Salagou, France, July 2004)

Albanian Pool Frog - Pelophylax shqipericus (Sasko Jezero, Montenegro, April 2008)

Epirus Water Frog - Pelophylax epeiroticus (Strofylia, Peloponnese, August 2020)

Cretan Water Frog - Pelophylax cretensis (Kourna Lake, Crete, Greece, June 2009)

Levant Water Frog - Pelophylax bedriagae (Gozo, Malta, April 2007)

American Bull Frog - Lithobates catesbeianus (Agia dam, Crete, Greece, June 2009)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species

REPTILIA - reptiles

Chelonii - tortoises, terrapins and turtles


Hermann’s Tortoise - Testudo hermanni (Corsica, France, July 2020)

Spur-thighed Tortoise - Testudo graeca (Thrace, Greece, May 2004)

Marginated Tortoise - Testudo marginata (Sardinia, Italy, May 2011)


European Pond Terrapin - Emys orbicularis (Corsica, France, August 2018)

Red-eared Slider - Trachemys scripta elegans (Majorca, Spain, July 2005)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species


Balkan Terrapin - Mauremys rivulata (Buljarica, Montenegro, April 2008)

Moorish Terrapin - Mauremys leprosa (Extremadura, Spain, September 2005)


Loggerhead Sea Turtle - Caretta caretta (Crete, Greece, June 2009)

Sauria - lizards


Starred Agama - Laudakia stellio (Chalkidiki, Greece, May 2004)
European populations might all result from introductions


Mediterranean Chameleon - Chamaeleo chamaeleon (Malta, April 2007)
European populations might all result from introductions

African Chameleon - Chamaeleo africanus (Peloponnese, Greece, July 2020)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species


Moorish Gecko - Tarentola mauritanica (Malta, April 2007)


Turkish Gecko - Hemidactylus turcicus (Huelva, Spain, April 2006)

Cretan Bent-toed Gecko - Mediodactylus bartoni (Crete, Greece, June 2009)

Bulgarian Bent-toed Gecko Mediodactylus danilewskii (Makri, Thrace, Greece, May 2004)

Kotschy’s Bent-toed Gecko - Mediodactylus kotschyi (Milos, Greece, May 2006)

Oertzen’s Bent-toed Gecko - Mediodactylus oertzeni (Karpathos, Greece, December 2005)


European Leaf-toed Gecko - Euleptes europaea (Corsica, France, August 2018)


Steppe Runner - Eremias arguta (Danube river delta, Romania, May 2007)

Spiny-footed Lizard - Acanthodactylus erythrurus (Huelva, Spain, April 2006)

Algerian Psammodromus - Psammodromus algirus (Extremadura, Spain, September 2005)

Spanish Psammodromus - Psammodromus hispanicus s.s. (southern Navarra province, Spain, May 2012)

seen without picture
Edwards's Psammodromus - Psammodromus edwarsianus

Western Psammodromus - Psammodromus occidentalis (Huelva, Spain, April 2006)

Snake-eyed Lacertid - Ophisops elegans (Evros, Greece, May 2004)

Dalmatian Algyroides - Algyroides nigropunctatus (Corfu, Greece, April 2022)

Spanish Algyroides - Algyroides marchi (Sierra de Cazorla, Spain, April 2006)

Tyrrhenian Algyroides - Algyroides fitzingeri (Punta Falcone, Sardinia, February 2009)

Greek Algyroides - Algyroides moreoticus (Peloponnese, October 2006)

Ocellated Lizard - Timon lepidus (Galicia, Spain, May 2012)

seen without picture
Sierra Nevada Ocellated Lizard - Timon nevadensis

Eastern Green Lizard - Lacerta viridis (Macin hills, Romania, May 2007)

Western Green Lizard - Lacerta bilineata (S Calabria, Italy, April 2010)

Balkan Green Lizard - Lacerta trilineata (Kourna Lake, Crete, Greece, June 2009)

Anatolian Green Lizard - Lacerta diplochondrodes (Black Sea coast, Romania, May 2007)

not yet seen...
Cycladian Green Lizard - Lacerta citrovittata

Schreiber’s Green Lizard - Lacerta schreiberi (Ourense province, Spain, May 2012)

Sand Lizard - Lacerta agilis (Zminicko Jezero, Montenegro, May 2008)

Iberian Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta monticola (Spain, April 2012)

Cyren’s Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta cyreni (Sierra de Gredos, Spain, September 2005)

Peña de Francia Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta martinezricai (Sierra de Peña de Francia, Spain, September 2005)

Galan’s Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta galani (Montes de Leon, Spain, October 2006)

Pyrenean Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta bonnali (Pyrenees, France, August 2019)

Aran Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta aranica (Vall d'Aran, Spain, August 2010)

Aurelio’s Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta aurelioi (France, August 2017)

Horvath’s Rock Lizard - Iberolacerta horvathi (Austria, July 2010)

Bedriaga’s Rock Lizard - Archaeolacerta bedriagae (Corsica, France, August 2018)

Sharp-snouted (Rock) Lizard - Dalmatolacerta oxycephala (Montenegro, May 2008)

Mosor Rock Lizard - Dinarolacerta mosorensis (Montenegro, May 2008)

Prokletije Rock Lizard - Dinarolacerta montenegrina (Montenegro, May 2008)

Greek Rock Lizard - Hellenolacerta graeca (Peloponnese, October 2004)

Meadow Lizard - Darevskia praticola (Evros prefecture, Greece, May 2013)

Viviparous Lizard - Zootoca vivipara (Romania, May 2007)

Carniolian Lizard - Zootoca carniolica (N Italy, July 2016)

Moroccan Rock Lizard - Scelarcis perspicillata (Minorca, Spain, July 2005)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species

Madeira Wall Lizard - Teira dugesii (Lisbon, Portugal, December 2008)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species

Common Wall Lizard - Podarcis muralis (Ada island, Montenegro, May 2008)

Iberian Wall Lizard (s.s.) - Podarcis hispanicus (s.s.) (Galera, Andalucia, Spain, April 2006)

Iberian Wall Lizard (partim) - Podarcis guadarramae (Sierra de Peña de Francia, Spain, September 2005)

Lusitanian Wall Lizard - Podarcis lusitanicus (Galicia, Spain, May 2012)

Iberian Wall Lizard (partim) - Podarcis virescens (Sierra de Andujar, Spain, April 2006)

Catalonian Wall Lizard - Podarcis liolepis (Islas Columbretes, Spain, July 2007)

Vaucher’s Wall Lizard - Podarcis vaucheri (Càdiz, Andalucia, April 2006)

Bocage’s Wall Lizard - Podarcis bocagei (Galicia, Spain, May 2012)

Carbonell’s Wall Lizard - Podarcis carbonelli (Huelva, Andalucia, April 2006)

Lilford’s Wall Lizard - Podarcis lilfordi (sa Dragonera, Majorca, Spain, July 2005)

Ibiza Wall Lizard - Podarcis pityusensis (Cala Ratjada, Majorca, Spain, July 2005)

Italian Wall Lizard - Podarcis siculus (Galeria, Corsica, May 2009)

Sicilian Wall Lizard - Podarcis waglerianus (Nebrodi, Sicily, May 2010)

Aeolian Wall Lizard - Podarcis raffonei (Scoglio Faraglione, Aeolian Islands, Italy, April 2010)

Tyrrhenian Wall Lizard - Podarcis tiliguerta (Capo d'Orso, Sardinia, May 2009)

Maltese Wall Lizard - Podarcis filfolensis (Comino, Malta, May 2007)

Dalmatian Wall Lizard - Podarcis melisellensis (Montenegro, April 2008)

Ionian Wall Lizard - Podarcis ionicus (Peloponnese, Greece, May 2006)

Balkan Wall Lizard - Podarcis tauricus (Nestos river mouth, Greece, May 2004)

Peloponnese Wall Lizard - Podarcis peloponnesiacus (Peloponnese, Greece, July 2020)

Eastern Peloponnese Wall Lizard - Podarcis thais (Peloponnese, Greece, August 2020)

Erhard’s Wall Lizard - Podarcis erhardii (Bulgaria, May 2005)

Milos Wall Lizard - Podarcis milensis (Milos, Greece, May 2013)

Skyros Wall Lizard - Podarcis gaigeae (Skyros, Greece, June 2006)

Cretan Wall Lizard - Podarcis cretensis (Crete, Greece, June 2009)

Pori Wall Lizard - Podarcis levendis (Pori/Prasonisi, Greece, May 2011)


Ocellated Skink - Chalcides ocellatus (Attica, Greece, July 2020)

Bedriaga’s Skink - Chalcides bedriagai (Huelva, Andalucia, April 2006)

Italian Tree-toed Skink - Chalcides chalcides (Nebrodi, Sicily, May 2010)

Iberian Tree-toed Skink - Chalcides striatus (Càdiz, Andalucia, April 2006)

Snake-eyed Skink - Ablepharus kitaibelii (Evros prefecture, Greece, May 2013)

Limbless Skink - Ophiomorus punctatissimus (Peloponnese, October 2006)


Glass Lizard - Pseudopus apodus (Bulgaria, May 2005)

Slow Worm - Anguis fragilis (Vierves, Belgium, 2007)

Italian Slow Worm - Anguis veronensis (Veneto, Italy, July 2010)

Eastern Slow Worm - Anguis colchica (Brasov, Romania, May 2007)

Greek Slow Worm - Anguis graeca (N Greece, May 2013)

Peloponnese Slow Worm - Anguis cephallonica (Peloponnese, April 2017)

Amphisbaenia - worm lizards


Central Iberian Worm Lizard - Blanus rufus (Extremadura, October 2005)

Iberian Worm Lizard - Blanus cinereus (Huelva, Andalucia, April 2006)

Serpentes - snakes


Worm Snake - Xerotyphlops vermicularis (Evros, Greece, May 2004)


Sand Boa - Eryx jaculus (N Greece, May 2013)


Western Whip Snake - Hierophis viridiflavus (Nettuno, Italy, April 2005)

Balkan Whip Snake - Hierophis gemonensis (Crete, Greece, June 2009)

Horseshoe Whip Snake - Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Sierra de Andujar, Andalucia, April 2006)

Algerian Whip Snake - Hemorrhois algirus (Malta, April 2007)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species

Coin-marked Snake - Hemorrhois nummifer (Symi, Greece, October 2007)

Caspian Whip Snake - Dolichophis caspius (Black Sea coast, Bulgaria, May 2005)

Dahl’s Whip Snake - Platyceps najadum (Attica, Greece, August 2020)

Reddish Whip Snake - Platyceps collaris (Black Sea coast, Bulgaria, May 2005)

(Masked) Dwarf Snake - Eirenis modestus (Samos, Greece, October 2009)
presence of this species within Europe requires confirmation

Four-lined Snake - Elaphe quatuorlineata (Montenegro, April 2008)

Blotched Snake - Elaphe sauromates (Thrace, Greece, May 2004)

Aesculapian Snake - Zamenis longissimus (C France, April 2019)

Italian Aesculapian Snake - Zamenis lineatus (Nebrodi, Sicily, April 2010)

Leopard Snake - Zamenis situla (Kresna, Bulgaria, May 2005)

Ladder Snake - Zamenis scalaris (Andalucia, April 2006)

Smooth Snake - Coronella austriaca (Pyrenees, France, July 2020)

Southern Smooth Snake - Coronella girondica (France, July 2020)

Iberian False Smooth Snake - Macroprotodon brevis (Andalucia, April 2006)

Algerian False Smooth Snake - Macroprotodon cucullatus (Menorca, October 2010)
only present within Europe as allochthonous, introduced species

Cat Snake - Telescopus fallax (Peloponnese, Greece, July 2020)


Grass Snake - Natrix natrix (N Greece, May 2013)

Barred Grass Snake - Natrix helvetica (Sardinia, Italy, July 2020)

Iberian Grass Snake - Natrix astreptophora (Extremadura, Spain, October 2005)

Viperine Snake - Natrix maura (C France, April 2019)

Dice Snake - Natrix tessellata (Germany, April 2019)


Western Montpellier Snake - Malpolon monspessulanus (Murcia, Spain, April 2006)

Eastern Montpellier Snake - Malpolon insignitus (Peloponnese, Greece, August 2020)


Adder - Vipera berus (Rommedenne, Belgium 2007)

Seoane’s Viper - Vipera seoanei (Spain, August 2019)

Meadow Viper - Vipera ursinii (SE France, August 2019)

Greek Meadow Viper - Vipera graeca (Pindos, Greece, August 2020)

Asp Viper - Vipera aspis (Pyrenees, France, August 2019)

Nose-horned Viper - Vipera ammodytes (Greece, August 2020)

Lataste’s Viper - Vipera latastei (Doñana, Huelva, Spain, April 2006)

Ottoman Viper - Montivipera xanthina (Evros, Greece, May 2004)

Blunt-nosed Viper - Macrovipera lebetinus - ssp. schweizeri, Milos Viper (Milos, Greece, April 2013)

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Last update: December 05, 2023 12:52:34