Herpetofauna of Europe : montenegro (april-may 2008)
Herpetofauna of Europe European Amphibians & Reptiles

Herpetological trip to Montenegro
25th of April-9th of May 2008

All pictures (c) of Jeroen Speybroeck.

Though relatively small in size, Montenegro (aka Crna Gora), offers a rich variety in landscapes, thus also a myriad of suitable habitats for herpetofauna. Its location along the Eastern Adriatic warrants the presence of many typical Balkan species, plus a number of endemic karst-adapted lizard species. Despite seemingly chaotic building and construction of hotels going on at the coast (but also e.g. at ski resorts like Zabljak), this small country has a beauty which can hardly be equalled by any other European country. After a previous Hyla trip during a June 2003 heat wave (see "Jan's trip reports" section), a second excursion seemed more than appealing. In contrast to 2003, we did not only explore the country from a coast-based stay, but also slept at two inland places. Thus, apart from the coastal area, also the Bjelasica mountains (Biogradska Gora NP), the western Prokletije mountains and Durmitor NP were on our menu.
Forty-three species of amphibians (13) and reptiles (30) were observed. We were nine people: Jan, Peter, Anniek, Gijs, Gerd, Leonard, Jelle, Jos and me.
Alexander Westerström, Georg Dzukic, Liljana Tomovic, Konrad Mebert, Mario Schweiger, Johannes Hill and David Bird are kindly thanked for help on search sites.

overview of prospected sites and route in GoogleEarth view - thanks to Gijs

we went quite a bit up and down…

observed number per species of non-natricid snakes (n = 91)

Episode 1: Coastal area - part 1

25th of April - transit and near the hotel

An early flight brought us from Brussels to Tivat, where the ‘airport herps’ were Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus), Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis), Dalmatian Wall Lizard (Podarcis melisellensis) and Glass Lizard (Pseudopus apodus). The Europcar office claimed to have no knowledge of our minibus reservation, nor the payment that had been made. Luckily, Jan was able to solve this issue pretty quickly and a replacement was provided by Avis. While waiting for our car, we made an uphill search above our Becici hotel (just south of Budva), where we slept for 6 nights during the first episode of the trip. Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni), Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta trilineata), Glass Lizard and a juvenile Balkan Whip Snake (Hierophis gemonensis) were found. A small brook held Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and Common Toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles. Further up, Peter found a Greek Stream Frog (Rana graeca). At night, Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) was found in the walls along the beach. Nights were pretty cool and windy, so these geckoes barely ventured out.

view over our coastal stay

Sveti Stefan

Glass Lizard (Pseudopus apodus)

pair of Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni)

Peter and Jelle during tortoise photography

Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina variegata), with Common Toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles tickling its feet

26th of April – Buljarica swamp and a first loop Budva-Petrovac-Virpazar-Cetinje-Budva

South of Petrovac, we explored the nice Buljarica wetland. Cold wind but still we found Balkan Green Lizard, Smooth Newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), Balkan Terrapin (Mauremys rivulata), Hermann’s Tortoise, Balkan Whip Snake, Grass Snake (Natrix natrix), Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata), Slow Worm, Glass Lizard, Marsh Frog, Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina) and a few Albanian Pool Frogs (Pelophylax shqipericus) were heard calling. Afterwards, although we were uncertain which house it actually was, we explored the area around David Bird’s place. A nice mixture of small gardens, dry-stone walls, a small brook, … . Again, Slow Worm, Balkan Whip Snake, Glass Lizard, Agile Frog, Balkan Green Lizard, Hermann’s Tortoise, Turkish Gecko and our first Dalmatian Algyroides (Algyroides nigropunctatus). While the day was passing, we made a long drive to the Skadar Lake and back to our hotel. Near our favourite roadside restaurant at Sotonici, we found Hermann’s Tortoise, Balkan Whip Snake, Marsh Frog and Glass Lizard. Towards Cetinje, we tried to find some ponds in small villages and found Marsh Frog, Common Toad, Smooth Newt and Agile Frog. Too late in the day to find the desired Crested Newt ponds. Along the road, also a DOR Dahl’s Whip Snake (Platyceps najadum).

Anniek searching at Buljarica (right) near the sea (left)

Balkan Whip Snake (Hierophis gemonensis)

Balkan Whip Snake (Hierophis gemonensis)

old Balkan Terrapin (Mauremys rivulata)

male Smooth Newt (Lissotriton vulgaris graecus)

view from the hills with Buljarica at the right

dry-stone wall with Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta trilineata)

Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta trilineata)

juvenile Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta trilineata)

27th of April – Ada Island and Sasko Jezero

This was the only day we explored the southern coastal area, bordering Albania. First stop at a small pond in a grassy area next to the road, just before crossing the bridge to Ada Island. Dalmatian Wall Lizard (Podarcis melisellensis), Green Toad (Bufo viridis) tadpoles, Marsh Frog, Hermann’s Tortoise, Glass Lizard and a first Caspian Whip Snake (Dolichophis caspius) were found. The latter is more or less restricted to the southern coast in Montenegro. Then Ada itself. Marshy island with reeds, bramble bushes, shallow ponds and the Bojana river. Numerous Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis) but also Dalmatian Wall Lizard, both water snake species, some more Caspian Whip Snakes, Hermann’s Tortoise, Slow Worm, European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis) and our first Nose-horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes) were found. Surprisingly, no Glass Lizard here. Clouds came in, so we moved on. At a Valdanos olive grove, we found Grass Snake, Balkan Whip Snake, Eastern Montpellier Snake (Malpolon insignitus), Glass Lizard, Common Toad tadpoles, Smooth Newt, Hermann’s Tortoise and Balkan Green Lizard. Dinner at Sasko Jezero, with a lot of Albanian Pool Frog, besides Marsh Frog, both water snakes and Balkan Green Lizard. After dark, we revisited Buljarica, saw European Pond Terrapin and heard Common Tree Frog (Hyla arborea). The water frogs were silent in the strong, cold wind.

Caspian Whip Snake (Dolichophis caspius)

Caspian Whip Snake (Dolichophis caspius)

Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis)

Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes)

Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes)

Ada photoshoot - Jan, Jelle, Anniek, Gijs, Peter and Gerd

Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis)

Sasko Jezero frog habitat

Albanian Pool Frog (Pelophylax shqipericus)

Albanian Pool Frog (Pelophylax shqipericus)

28th of April – disappointed by Lovcen but Triturus

We started off by driving up Lovcen mountain to a 2003 spot for Mosor Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta mosorensis). At 1200 m absl, clouds and cold wind all over, so we drove back down again. We explored the villages in between Cetinje and Lake Skadar. At the entrance of a nice cave, we found Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis), Common Toad, Hermann’s Tortoise, Glass Lizard and our first Sharp-snouted Rock Lizards (Dalmatolacerta oxycephala). We found a nice, big water reservoir, with Smooth Newt, Marsh Frog, Grass Snake and Macedonian Crested Newt (Triturus macedonicus). Nearby also Dalmatian Algyroides, Hermann’s Tortoise, Glass and Green Lizard. A second shot at Lovcen maybe? Now sun, but cold wind - only Common Wall Lizard and Green Lizard. Trying again at sunset, 100 m further down, delivered Common Wall and Sharp-snouted Lizard, so no Mosor (yet).

Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard (Dalmatolacerta oxycephala)

Gijs shooting crested newt in front of its habitat

male Macedonian Crested Newt (Triturus macedonicus)

melanistic Grass Snake (Natrix natrix)

male Dalmatian Algyroides (Algyroides nigropunctatus)

29th of April – southwestern Skadar etc.

Peter and I went to pick up Jos at the airport, and after that, we moved to the southwestern shore of Lake Skadar. Jos seemed to bring good fortune, as we found a lot of species on this day. The shore area offers low-lying wetland areas, small gardens, but also warm rocky slopes. We found Grass Snake, European Pond Terrapin, Hermann’s Tortoise, Agile Frog, Tree Frog, Montpellier Snake, Nose-Horned Viper, Dahl’s Whip Snake, Balkan Whip Snake, Glass Lizard, Slow Worm, Balkan Green Lizard, Common Wall Lizard, Dalmatian Wall Lizard, Dalmatian Algyroides, Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata) and larvae and DOR Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra). Later on, it started to rain, so we went for a drink in Virpazar, where we found both water snakes, Balkan Whip Snake, Marsh Frog, Slow Worm and both green lizard species. After dinner/dark, surprisingly, just a single Agile Frog and one Common Toad on the wet road. Even at Buljarica, anuran walkabout was limited. Nevertheless, with 26 species a very good day.

roadside snake habitat

subadult Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)

Peter showing off his new cool headwear while snake handling

Eastern Montpellier Snake (Malpolon insignitus)

Dahl’s Whip Snake (Platyceps najadum)

Dahl’s Whip Snake (Platyceps najadum)

Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes)

dinner time - Anniek, Jos, Gijs, Jan, Peter, Jelle and Gerd

Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina)

30th of April – northeastern coast

Weather was still bad, with a lot of clouds and wind, but limited rain, so we went for a drive towards the Croatian border. Stopping at Kotor, we found the introduced Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) in the holes in the old city walls. The sun started to come out when we explored the wide lowland valley near Sutorina. We found Marsh Frog, Balkan Whip Snake, Dalmatian Wall Lizard, Balkan Green Lizard, Slow Worm, Glass Lizard, Balkan Terrapin, Agile Frog, Grass Snake and the debated tortoise taxon Testudo hermanni hercegovinensis, lacking inguinal scutes as it is supposed to. Above Herceg-Novi, we stopped at a small village with the same tortoise, Balkan Whip Snake, Dalmatian Wall, Glass and Balkan Green Lizard and Jelle caught a nice adult Four-lined Snake.

Sutorina search site

Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni 'hercegovinensis')

lack of inguinal scute in this tortoise morph/(sub)species/…

Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)

Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)

Dalmatian Wall Lizard (Podarcis melisellensis)

Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) - introduced to Kotor Bay

flowers in Kotor

Episode 2: Biogradska Gora & Prokletije mountains

1st of May – inland transit

We left the coast and drove towards Kolasin, where we slept for 4 nights. First, we picked up Leonard at Podgorica airport. Along the road, we explored the Mrtvica valley at a dust-road side and a beautiful mountain valley. We found a baby Fire Salamander, Common Wall, Sharp-snouted, Green and -after some karst climbing, finally- Mosor Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta mosorensis), Yellow-bellied Toad, Nose-horned Viper (at 1200 m absl) and Slow Worm.

Mrtvica roadside search site

Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard (Dalmatolacerta oxycephala)

Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis)

mountain valley view higher up with both rock lizards, Nose-horned viper and more

Gijs descending from Mosor Rock Lizard habitat

timid at first - Mosor Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta mosorensis)

more cooperative - Mosor Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta mosorensis)

2nd of May – Biogradska Gora and Prokletije mnts.

Trying to reach a spot for mountain vipers, we passed the Biogradska ski slope, with some partially snow-covered slopes and a pond. Common Toad, Grass Frog (Rana temporaria), Alpine Newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis) were found. After that, we drove on, but quite soon we got stuck in the snow. After the adventurous liberation and turning around of the minibus, we stopped below the ski site and found more Sand Lizard and a DOR Fire Salamander. Thinking about what to do with the rest of the day, given our failed viper drive, we decided to drive south, towards Bukumirsko Jezero. Luckily, this lake was easier to reach, and very soon we found the anticipated Prokletije Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta montenegrina). Also Common Wall Lizard and Nose-horned Viper (at 1600 m absl). A common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) wanted some attention too, and jumped in front of our first lizard, while we were taking pictures. Towards and around the lake itself, we found Common and Green Toad mating, Grass Frog, Grass Snake, Smooth Newt and Alpine Newt (subspecies montenegrina). Of the latter species, being supposed to be neotenous, we found tens of normally metamorphosised individuals. Back to Kolasin, we made a final short stop along the Verusa river, in a valley with a nice swamp and a lot of marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), where we found Common Toad, Grass Frog and Yellow-Bellied Toad.

Gijs recovering from Mosor Rock climbing

pond at ski site

male Alpine Newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris)

Common Frog (Rana temporaria)

driving through the snow - shot from behind the wheel

no driving anymore - Jos, Gijs, Jan and Leonard pushing; Anniek supervising

terra typica of Prokletije Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta montenegrina) - copying the picture in the original description ;-)

vice versa: looking down from terra typica to Bukumirsko Jezero

Peter and Jos at the habitat of our first rock lizard

syntopic Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes)

roadside habitat with view at terra typica

Prokletije Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta montenegrina)

Prokletije Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta montenegrina)

Prokletije Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta montenegrina)

common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius)

toad egg strains drying up on lake shore

3rd of May – Biogradska Gora mountain vipers

Mountain vipers take 2. We tried to approach the viper site differently, doing a nice hike. Along the way and arriving at higher ground, we found Common Wall Lizard, Grass Frog, Sand Lizard and also Viviparous Lizard (Zootoca vivipara). Searching dwarf juniper bushes and walking up- and down-hill for a couple of hours, our hope was fading bit by bit. Too short sunny periods alternated with clouds and cold wind. Then, a longer sunny period warmed up the place, and Jan soon found two Bosnian Adders (Vipera berus bosniensis), a (sub)species we had been trying to find for some years. Peter upheld his reputation and found two more. Then, very 'last minute' and just before it started snowing, Jelle found a nice Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii macrops). Thus, we had accomplished our mountain mission! Beforehand sceptic advisors were proven 'fortunately wrong'. Another nice meal perfected the day.

alpine viper habitat

early spring flora (1)

early spring flora (2)

a short mid-search break with Peter, Anniek and Jan

Viviparous Lizard (Zootoca vivipara)

first Adder (Vipera berus bosniensis)

second Adder (Vipera berus bosniensis)

tribute to Konrad ;-)

third Adder (Vipera berus bosniensis)

fourth Adder (Vipera berus bosniensis)

Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii macrops)

Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii macrops)

viper comparison

4th of May – Biogradska Gora’s final tressors

Cold cloudy weather made us realise even more how lucky we had been the day before. We hiked around Biogradska Jezero. Nice little hike, finding nothing special but Common Toad, Alpine Newt, Smooth Newt, Common Wall Lizard, Slow Worm, Grass Frog and Yellow-Bellied Toad. Two snake species were still on our wish list for the inland area, so we found ourselves a nice open valley along the railroad nearby and started searching. Variable weather, shifting from raindrops to sunny moments. Slow Worm, Dice Snake, Green Lizard and Common Wall Lizard were quite easily found. It also took us only some tens of minutes before finding six Smooth Snakes (Coronella austriaca). Gerd spotted an invididual of the other desired species, that disappeared underneath a big rock. Peter and Jelle showed some muscle and turned the rock over, uncovering a beautiful, big Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus). We continued driving higher up and found Sand Lizard and Grass Frog eggs, but weather remained suboptimal.

Biogradska Jezero

old house at snake site

Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus)

Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus)

keeled dorsal scales

Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca)

Episode 3: Durmitor

5th of May – Durmitor

Weather was still pretty much off, when we moved to our next target area, Durmitor NP. On the road, DOR Aesculapian and Dice Snake. First stop was for the serdara subspecies of the Alpine Newt at Zminicko Jezero. In comparison to the other mountain lakes we saw, not really worth the detour. Again no neotenous Alpine Newt but only a single normal female, plus Smooth Newt, Marsh Frog, Common Frog, Agile Frog, Common Toad and Sand Lizard. Some works were going on, and the lake was pretty turbid. A nearby quarry with shallow ponds had Agile Frog, Green Toad larvae, Common Toad, Smooth Newt, Alpine Newt. Then, we reached Durmitor. Cold and cloudy again. The members of its herpetofauna, we had all already encountered elsewhere, but we were intrigued by the description of its beauty and were hoping to spot perhaps some more vipers and maybe large mammals. Spring was, however, still further away here than at Biogradska Gora. After the regular pancake break, we walked around Crno Jezero. A little bit of feable sunrays pierced through, and we found Marsh Frog, Green Toad and many Common Toad mating. Also Alpine and Smooth Newt. Common Wall Lizard was the only reptile seen here.

Zminicko Jezero

Gentiana sp.

female Alpine Newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris serdarus)

Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis)

Crno Jezero

Green Toad (Bufo viridis)

mating site of Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

Episode 4: Coastal area - part 2

6th of May – fleeing: from Durmitor back to the coast

Rain and melting snow pouring down in the morning over our Zabljak communist-style hotel. We decided to deviate from our plans and cancel the next Zabljak nights, unfortunately leaving Durmitor behind and starting the 4-5 hours drive back to the coast. Rain over the entire country, so we cancelled a scheduled mid-drive stop near Niksic and arrived at the coast in the late afternoon. Finally, the rain stopped and a little bit of sun finished the day. We explored the area southwest of Virpazar and found a nice number of species: Glass Lizard (incl. a juvenile), Slow Worm, Marsh Frog, Common Toad, Hermann’s Tortoise, Agile Frog, Smooth Newt, Yellow-Bellied Toad, Montpellier Snake, Balkan Whip Snake, Dahl’s Whip Snake and Dalmatian Wall Lizard. A nice way to end an otherwise forgetable day.

7th of May – near Skadar Lake etc.

The first truely sunny day of the trip. We started off by revisiting the evening site of the previous day. Apart from the already observed species, we also found Nose-horned Viper, Common Wall Lizard, Four-lined Snake, Grass Snake, Dice Snake, European Pond Terrapin, Dalmatian Algyroides and Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard. This added up to a total of 20 species for this site, which may well be the largest number of species we ever found at a single site. After retrieving part of our team from friendly locals, offering a perhaps less friendly drink, we moved on to Murici. Clearly more DOR animals now, including 2 juvenile Glass Lizards. At Murici, we found Nose-horned Viper, Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard, Dice Snake, Balkan Green Lizard, calling Tree Frog, Dahl’s Whip and Balkan Whip Snake and Glass Lizard. At dawn, we drove from Virpazar towards Rijeka Crnojevica, where we found a number of Tree Frogs on the road, as well as many calling from the lake, together with Marsh Frog. Unfortunately, I ran one over with the car. Also DOR Glass Lizards, DOR Aesculapian Snake juvenile, and a big Common Toad female.

Jos and Jan returning from a search along the railroad

European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis)

terrapin, Anniek, Leonard and our transport

Grass Snake (Natrix natrix) - 140 cm and massive head

Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)

view of Skadarsko Jezero

Common Tree Frog (Hyla arborea)

8th of May – north and south of Virpazar

Our final full day of searching. Again sunny and warm. First, we explored small villages in between Virpazar and Bar. Along the road, Gerd found a juvenile Four-lined Snake hanging in a bush. Other species in this area: Glass Lizard, Slow Worm, Balkan Green Lizard, Common Wall Lizard, Dalmatian Algyroides, Balkan Whip Snake, Nose-horned Viper, Hermann’s Tortoise, Grass Snake, European Pond Terrapin, Marsh Frog and calling Tree Frog. A drink at Virpazar with (in addition to the species of our previous stop here) Albanian Pool Frog and Dalmatian Wall Lizard. After that, final search in the valley of Dupilo, with nice overgrown ruins, dry-stone walls and roadsides. Nose-horned Viper, Agile Frog, Marsh Frog, Grass Snake, Balkan Green Lizard, Balkan Whip Snake, Hermann’s Tortoise and Dalmatian Algyroides were found, but no Leopard Snake (Zamenis situla). After that, back to our favourite restaurant, where our final meal was slightly disturbed by me nearly choking on their sublethal, yet unbelievable mixed grill.

roadside snake photography - Peter, Jos, Jelle, Gijs and Anniek

juvenile Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)

Adalia decempunctata

basking Balkan Whip Snake (Hierophis gemonensis)

Limenitis reducta

Scolitantides orion

local man and his local animal

view from Virpazar bridge

9th of May – Jaz and back home

Nice warm weather again, when we stopped at the Jaz lowland, on our way to Tivat airport. Nothing much to see here, but many purple and other herons. Several mongoose were seen (most likely Herpestes auropunctatus), perhaps explaining the lack of some snakes. We found Marsh Frog, European Pond Terrapin, Balkan Terrapin, Grass Snake and an unfortunate final addition to our list of observed species - Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). After that, we left beautiful Montenegro with pain in our hearts.

Jaz search site with water reservoir

Coenagrion pulchellum

terrapin search through the wilderness

three in a row - European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis)

closing time - group picture with me, Jos, Anniek, Peter, Jan, Gijs, Jelle, Gerd and Leonard

List of the observed species

1. Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) - only one juvenile, a few larvae and 2 DOR adults
2. Macedonian Crested Newt (Triturus macedonicus) - only at 1 site
3. Alpine Newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) - said to be neotenous subspecies montenegrina and serdara turned out be normally metamorphosised
4. Smooth Newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) - subspecies graecus at the coast and nominal form in the mountains
5. Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina variegata)
6. Common Toad (Bufo bufo)
7. Green Toad (Bufo viridis)
8. Common Tree Frog (Hyla arborea)
9. Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) - presence of Greek Marsh Frog (Pelophylax kurtmuelleri) in Montenegro is possible
10. Albanian Pool Frog (Pelophylax shqipericus)
11. Grass Frog (Rana temporaria)
12. Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina)
13. Greek Stream Frog (Rana graeca) - surprisingly, only a single specimen found
14. European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis)
15. Balkan Terrapin (Mauremys rivulata)
16. Red-Eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans)
17. Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni) - boettgeri and the debated hercegovinensis
18. Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)
19. Dalmatian Algyroides (Algyroides nigropunctatus) - much more common than expected and predicted
20. Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis)
21. Eastern Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis) - populations from Eastern Adriatic and parts of western Greece may have to be attributed to Lacerta bilineata
22. Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta trilineata)
23. Viviparous Lizard (Zootoca vivipara)
24. Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard (Dalmatolacerta oxycephala)
25. Mosor Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta mosorensis)
26. Prokletije Rock Lizard (Dinarolacerta montenegrina)
27. Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis)
28. Dalmatian Wall Lizard (Podarcis melisellensis)
29. Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) - introduced to Kotor Bay
30. Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis)
31. Glass Lizard (Pseudopus apodus) - extremely abundant in coastal lowland areas
32. Balkan Whip Snake (Hierophis gemonensis)
33. Caspian Whip Snake (Dolichophis caspius)
34. Dahl’s Whip Snake (Platyceps najadum)
35. Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus)
36. Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)
37. Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca)
38. Grass Snake (Natrix natrix) - both natrix- and persa-like animals
39. Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata)
40. Eastern Montpellier Snake (Malpolon insignitus)
41. Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes)
42. Adder (Vipera berus) - subspecies bosniensis
43. Meadow Viper (Vipera ursinii) - subspecies macrops

What we missed …

1. Alpine Salamander (Salamandra atra) is restricted to a limited number of isolated mountain areas.
2. Although further investigation remains desirable, May 2009 a first confirmed record for Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus) appears to have been made.
3. Worm Snake (Typhlops vermicularis) reaches its northern mainland limit in Montenegro.
4. Leopard Snake (Zamenis situla) is never a sure shot.
5. Finding Cat Snake (Telescopus fallax) usually takes warm nights, of which we had none.

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Last update: November 19, 2014 12:56:58