Herpetofauna of Europe : s calabria & ne sicily - italy (april-may 2010)
Herpetofauna of Europe European Amphibians & Reptiles

Herpetological trip to S Calabria and NE Sicily (Italy)
24th of April - 5th of May 2010

Unless specified otherwise, all pictures (c) of Jeroen Speybroeck.

After our 2005 trip to southern Italy and Sicily, some attractive species had remained elusive. Therefore, we were anxious to explore those areas once more. While 2005 had been especially rewarding on the amphibian side, visiting the area a month later, delivered the typical optimal spring result, with numbers of some amphibians perhaps being lower and of some reptiles not yet at their peak. In contrast to the previous trip, we restricted ourselves this time to the extreme south of the Italian mainland and the northwest of Sicily. Although this excluded the opportunity of seeing some specific species, we wanted to spend more time searching and less driving. On the mainland, we visited the surroundings of Serra San Bruno and the Aspromonte. On Sicily, our goals were the Nebrodi and Etna National Parks plus a lazy final day in the Iblean area.
Prior to our departure, a list of 31 species could be drawn up, of which we were able to observe 29: 12 amphibian and 17 reptile species. Additionally, we found two exogenous species. Two more restricted and/or secretive snake species did not receive that much of our specific search effort and therefore remained unobserved.
Among the main species of special interest, were the Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus) and the southern subspecies hugyi of the Asp Viper (Vipera aspis). Quite contrary to our expectations, we found much more individuals of the former, eventhough we searched for many, many hours in excellent viper habitats.
A highly memorable excursion was our single day visit to the Aeolian Islands, visiting one of the tiny islets where the endemic Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei) persists. The happy herping crew on this trip consisted of Jan (B), Gijs (B/NL), Peter (B), Anniek (B), Daniel (D), Leonard (MT) and we welcomed Guido Bonnett (MT) as a new best friend. Benny Trapp (D) and his faithful dog Malaka tagged along, like during last year’s Sardinia trip. In all, great company as always.
We are indebted to Johan De Smedt, Pietro Lo Cascio, Thomas Reich, Mario Schweiger, Peter Oefinger and Paolo Mazzei, who all provided very valuable help and hints.

overview of prospected sites

April 24th - evening arrival and towards Serra San Bruno

We arrived at Lamezia Terme airport well after dark, where we immediately could hear Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia) calling. Daniel had already arrived quite a bit earlier from Berlin, so we took off straight away. Before driving on to our Serra San Bruno stay, we stopped at a roadside restaurant, where we found our first Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) and Moorish Gecko (Tarentola mauritanica), an omnipresent duo in the lower parts of S Italy and Sicily. Here, we also heard Edible Frog (Pelophylax kl. esculentus). After a first tasty pizza, we continued to our agriturismo in light rain. A tree frog hopped on the road and a big Common Toad (Bufo bufo) inhabited the agriturismo’s garden. A little pond nearby had calling tree frogs. Exploring this pond during the consecutive days, we also found Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina), Edible Frog, tadpoles of Common Toad and a few Italian Newt (Lissotriton italicus).

arrival at Lamezia Terme airport - © Daniel Bohle

our first Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia)

April 25th - a nice yet viperless start

We revisited the viper site where we had bad weather in 2005. The weather was not very good once more: overcast and cold wind. Better than last time, though, as we found Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis - the largely ground-dwelling and as such Zootoca-like subspecies breviceps), Western Green Lizard (Lacerta bilineata), Agile Frog, Grass Snake (Natrix natrix), Italian Newt and tadpoles of Common Toad. Benny also found a Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis), a species which is -surprisingly- hardly ever recorded from southern Calabria. No sun, so we decided to go for an amphibian, rather than for vipers. Ironically, by the time we got there, the sun was out. In the dark and shady forest near a brook, no vipers, but -just like in 2005- several diurnal Fire Salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) plus an Italian Stream Frog (Rana italica) baby. After dark and dinner, we drove to a small and lovely brook. By the time we got there, Benny had found the trip’s one and only Southern Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina terdigitata). Lovely creature! At the same spot, also baby stream frog and Fire Salamander larvae.

first search site with not so good weather - Daniel, Jan, Gijs

Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis)

Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis)

Salamandra habitat

huuuuuge trees - © Daniel Bohle

Anniek & Peter

here’s one!

Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra)

Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra)

stuck in the mud - © Daniel Bohle

and again… - © Daniel Bohle

pushers get dirty - © Daniel Bohle

artificial pond near our Serra San Bruno stay

Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina)

net dipping always pays - Italian Newt (Lissotriton italicus)

enthusiasm over Salamandrina - © Daniel Bohle

Southern Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina terdigitata)

belly of Southern Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina terdigitata)

April 26th - two highly desired snakes

Chilly morning, but sun this time. Back to the viper site. Going further up, our first Western Whip Snake (Hierophis viridiflavus) near a small ruin which was crawling with lizards. While we re-recorded more or less the same species, it started to get warmer. Along a shrub row with dry ferns, Peter was able to catch an already hot and fast Asp Viper (Vipera aspis). Great! Strange there were no more to be found… After ample admiration, we drove down towards Lago dell’Angitola. The road from Serra San Bruno to the lake provided beautiful snake habitat. In a very green and lush area, we stopped near an old building and a small stream, after having found the trip’s only DOR snake - a stripeless, large Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus). We found Italian Wall Lizard, Italian Stream Frog, Western Whip Snake, Western Green Lizard and heard Italian Tree Frog. Next, an open meadow landscape closer to the lake, with Western Whip Snake, Western Green Lizard, Italian Wall Lizard, water frog indet., calls of tree frog, Italian Three-toed Skink (Chalcides chalcides) and a premoulting Italian Aesculapian Snake. This made us feel hopeful for what still had to come. We stayed around for dinner and explored a quarry after dark. Besides strange ridibundus-like water frogs, an opportunity for tree frog pictures and our first spot for Green Toad (Bufo viridis).

doggies at our agriturismo - © Daniel Bohle

Western Green Lizard (Lacerta bilineata)

Western Green Lizard (Lacerta bilineata) and Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis)

habitat of Asp Viper (Vipera aspis)

Asp Viper (Vipera aspis)

Asp Viper (Vipera aspis)

Asp Viper (Vipera aspis)

Western Whip Snake (Hierophis viridiflavus)

Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus)

Italian Stream Frog (Rana italica)

Italian Stream Frog (Rana italica)

meadow not far from the lake

our first ever Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

Lago dell’Angitola

Green Toad (Bufo (viridis) balearicus)

Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia)

Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia)

water frog sp. (Pelophylax sp.) - metatarsal tubercle very(!) small

Hyla studio

amphibian hunts can get messy

Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

April 27th - no Elaphe, but 3 Zamenis

In stages, we moved on from Serra San Bruno towards our next stay in Oppido Mamertina at the foot of the Aspromonte. First a final stop near Serra San Bruno at a seemingly excellent viper place. No vipers, but Common Wall Lizards, some Western Green Lizard, Grass Snake and Western Whip. Next, a small ruin in the woods, with both lizards but no Coronella. Then, a little valley which also seemed good for Smooth Snake, but soon got overrun by goats. Apart from Western Whip Snake, we did however find the trip’s second Slow Worm. On we went, to an area closer to the eastern coast of the toe of Italy’s boot, hoping for perhaps some Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata). Parked near a small, beautiful ruin, with Moorish Gecko, Italian Wall Lizard and Western Whip Snake. All swarmed out, as always, and within walking distance, we found Italian Wall Lizard, larvae of Italian Newt, Western Green Lizard, Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) and three Italian Aesculapian Snakes. Remarkably, these three as well as the one from the previous day and the DOR, were all stripeless animals. Conclusive stop at sunset at a big river with pools on the banks. Plenty of newt larvae, plus tree frog and green toad shortly calling, Edible Frog, Italian Wall Lizard and Moorish Gecko. Then, we reached our hotel in Oppido Mamertina, from where we heard Green Toad calling, replacing the Serra San Bruno tree frogs.

Western Whip Snake (Hierophis viridiflavus)

snake photography with Anniek, Daniel and Peter

Grass Snake (Natrix natrix)

Grass Snake (Natrix natrix)

and then came the goats…

Euphrasia sp.

snake searchers have to be let out at least every two hours - © Daniel Bohle

me waiting for Elaphe - © Daniel Bohle

Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

Moorish Gecko (Tarentola mauritanica)

somewhat coincidently, we came across the same remarkable smelly plant as Thomas Reich did

final search site before sunset

on the way to our new hotel, we bumped into Benny, who convinced us of the wonderful sillyness of waving pictures - © Daniel Bohle

April 28th - Bombina and crazy hike

Our first Aspromonte stop, was Thomas Reich’s spot for Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina variegata). Apart from somewhat bumpy roads, easy to find, and there was also Italian Stream Frog and Italian Wall Lizard. Then, the day started to warm up, and we decided to hike to the Lago Costantino. While we hoped for tortoises in this area, we only found a rather challenging climbing hike, which only Gijs, Anniek and me completed. Along the way, Italian Stream Frog. Back at where we had left the car, the others had found Italian Wall Lizard, Moorish Gecko, Western Whip Snake and a juvenile Italian Aesculapian Snake, which looked somewhat like a hybrid of a Smooth Snake and a Leopard Snake to us.

our basic Aspromonte hotel - © Daniel Bohle

Anniek, Peter, Jan and Gijs - © Daniel Bohle

greetings to Thomas Reich ;-) - Anniek, Jan, Gijs, Peter and Benny

Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina variegata)

Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina variegata)

juvenile Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

April 29th - crossing over and a good first Sicilian spot

Before leaving the mainland and taking the swift ferry to Messina, we tried one last time for Four-lined Snake at a suboptimal site in the extreme southern margin of the Italian mainland. No luck: only Italian Wall Lizard, Moorish Gecko and Western Whip Snake, as usual… Well, nevermind - our Sicilian desiderata were calling. In Messina, we picked up Leonard and Guido, who joined in for the Sicilian episode. Before finding ourselves an excellent B&B in Sant’Agata di Militello, we explored a nearby small lake. Edible and Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae) were singing their lungs out, and a few European Pond Terrapins (Emys orbicularis) were seen and caught. A black Grass Snake was basking on a trunk alongside with the terrapins. Western Whip, Moorish Gecko and Italian Wall Lizard were of course also on site, while Daniel found yet another aesculapian and Anniek discovered two Hermann’s Tortoises (Testudo hermanni). A productive evening!

on the ferry to Sicily - © Daniel Bohle

on the ferry to Sicily

new island, same trouble - © Daniel Bohle

small lake with a nice array of species

European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis)

Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni)

Edible Frog (Pelophylax kl. esculentus)

Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

photographing the latter with me, Jan, Leonard, Guido and Gijs - © Daniel Bohle

checking in to our B&B in Sant’Agata di Militello - © Daniel Bohle

April 30th - Scoglio Faraglione

Peter & Anniek stayed around the B&B, while the rest of us drove to Milazzo and took a hydrofoil transit to Salina island. From here, Pietro Lo Cascio had arranged a small boat for us to go and see the Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei) on Scoglio Faraglione, a tiny islet off the western shore of Salina. Looking up from our vessel to the Salina volcanoes and cliffs, provided magnificent views. On the scoglio, we had to climb a bit to get on the top of the rock, where we could walk around safely. Photographing the lizards was not that easy, because they were already shy in the warmth of the day, but they seemed to like fruit, as do their Balearic relatives. On Scoglio Faraglione, we finished the list of its entire herpetofauna, by also finding Moorish Gecko. After an equally agreeable boat trip back to Salina, we enjoyed a lovely meal in the shade. Back on Sicily, Peter and Anniek of course also kept busy and found Italian Wall Lizard, the two gecko species, Common Toad, Hermann’s Tortoise, Edible Frog, Ocellated Skink (Chalcides ocellatus), several Western Whip Snakes, a Grass Snake, another Italian Aesculapian Snake and larvae and juveniles of Painted Frog (Discoglossus pictus). While we were quite tired when we got back at the B&B, we continued after dinner (with a single Turkish Gecko), aiming towards our 2005 Discoglossus spot near Capo d’Orlando. We, however, never made it there, because a more closeby riverbed gave us what we wanted - many Painted Frog and also Green Toad and Ocellated Skink. Back at the B&B, a huge Common Toad broke our 2005 record of 18cm with 0,5-1cm.

why not have another silly waving picture? - © Daniel Bohle

Benny as a pirate harasser - © Daniel Bohle

20 pics/sec - © Daniel Bohle

Daniel and Benny at sea with Scoglio Faraglione in sight, left of the Salina cliffs

Jan looking for falcons

Scoglio Faraglione, home to one of the very few remaining populations of the Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei)

nearly there… - Gijs, Benny, Daniel

Gijs and Jan ascending and Leonard and Guido hesitating a little bit - © Daniel Bohle

Jan the jolly mountaineer - © Daniel Bohle

Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei)

Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei)

Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei) likes banana

Daniel on Scoglio Faraglione

Benny on Scoglio Faraglione - © Daniel Bohle

Scoglio Faraglione is just opposite the village of Pollara, where the film ‘Il Postino’ was recorded

Guido and boatsman wondering how the others will ever get back down - © Daniel Bohle

islet hoppers: me, Guido, Leonard, Daniel, Gijs, Jan and Benny - © Giuseppe the boatsman

barefoot boatsman Giuseppe - © Daniel Bohle

back to Sicily - © Daniel Bohle

despite Anniek’s good care, Malaka could not be comforted until his boss got back - © Daniel Bohle

Painted Frog (Discoglossus pictus)

Painted Frog (Discoglossus pictus)

Green Toad (Bufo (viridis) balearicus) - remarkably coloured female with very dark eyes

Guido with huge Common Toad (Bufo bufo), attracting Malaka’s attention

Peter and the same Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

Peter and the monster - © Daniel Bohle

May 1st - PN Nebrodi

We drove to Lago Quattrocchi. Weekend and 1st of May, so we were not alone. Beautiful place, though. We searched the surroundings for several hours and found European Pond Terrapin, Pool Frog, Grass Snake, Italian Three-toed Skink, Western Whip Snake, Italian Aesculapian Snake, Italian Wall Lizard, Western Green Lizard, Italian Tree Frog and Daniel found the trip’s only Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca), which had a very pointy snout. After an ice cream, we tried to drive to Lago Zilio, but that didn’t work out, so we just stopped at a forest side meadow with Ocellated Skink, Italian Three-toed Skink, Italian Wall Lizard, Moorish Gecko, Pool Frog, Hermann’s Tortoise, Grass and Western Whip Snake.

it had been over 24h since our last car trouble, so I had to drive into a ditch… - © Daniel Bohle

Western Green Lizard (Lacerta bilineata)

Nebrodi scenery & herp habitat

Jan and Guido walking along Lago Quattrocchi

European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis)

Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca)

Grass Snake (Natrix natrix)

Italian Three-toed Skink (Chalcides chalcides)

Italian Three-toed Skink (Chalcides chalcides)

Ocellated Skink (Chalcides ocellatus)

Nebrodi scenery - © Daniel Bohle

Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae)

May 2nd - From Nebrodi to Etna

Time to move on, for the final chapter of our trip, to the viper-rich southern slopes of Mount Etna. We had a beautiful drive through the inland, with great views on the volcano. First stop: Lago Maulazzo at over 1400m absl. Beautiful and quiet at first, but soon Sunday tourists popped up. We found Edible Frog, Italian Tree Frog, Common Toad, Grass Snake, Western Whip Snake, Western Green and Italian Wall Lizard. While the lake should have endogenous terrapins, we only observed an alien species (Pseudemys sp.). A random stop on our way towards Catania at an open oak forest, a nice meadow with orchids, and a large pond. Besides the usual suspects like Italian Three-toed Skink, Italian Wall Lizard, Western Whip Snake, Grass Snake, Western Green Lizard and Edible Frog, we also found here some Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus), sooner than expected. Beautiful views on the Etna, and finally we arrived at one of its smaller southern foothills. Black volcanic substrate with darker Italian Wall Lizards, some of which with atypical red or orange underparts. Great viper spots, but we only found Ocellated Skink, Italian Wall Lizard and Western Whip Snake. After that, we checked in to yet another terrific B&B in Nicolosi, still at the base of the Etna. Hot days interrupted with chilly nights at our >800m absl stay, where the garden and walls had Moorish Gecko and Italian Wall Lizard. After dinner, Leonard, Guido and Daniel joined me on a drive down to the not that lovely Catania lowlands, where we met with Benny to find some animals of what has been described as the Sicilian Green Toad (Bufo siculus). While we were eating, Benny had already done the preparation, consisting of disappointing driving down dead end roads and passing smelly dumpsites all over. However, a final possible spot delivered. Quite a high percentage of the animals displayed a calamita-like vertebral line. Leaving the pungent dumpsite, we hit our beds well after midnight.

leaving towards Etna; Guido and Peter storing luggage in the trunk - © Daniel Bohle

Lago Maulazzo

alien terrapin (Pseudemys sp.) - © Jan Van Der Voort

nothing beats a toad toast for breakfast - © Leonard Zammit

Nebrodi habitat of Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus) with view at Mount Etna

Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus)

Peter and Guido during snake photography - © Daniel Bohle

banana queen - © Daniel Bohle

view at Mount Etna

Green Toad (Bufo (viridis) siculus) - individual with vertebral stripe but reddish pigment present

Green Toad (Bufo (viridis) siculus) - individual more fitting taxon description

May 3rd - Etna area in the sun

We spent nearly the entire day trying to find some more vipers in beautiful places near the Etna, at about 1000m absl elevation. This delivered Italian Wall Lizard, Ocellated Skink, Western Whip Snake and another two Italian Aesculapian Snakes. During the heat of the middle of the day, we drove up the volcano as a more regular tourist activity. Near a snow patch at 1800m absl still some Italian Wall Lizards. Impressive volcano landscape.

great search site with again a beautiful view at the Etna

Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)

Peter, Jan, Leonard, Gijs and Guido on higher Etna

while running towards the others across the snow patch for a group picture, I was brutally attacked

same story, different victim

hungry and thursty people waiting for their driver

this agriturismo was unfortunately fully booked

May 4th - Etna area with clouds and wind

Totally different weather now, which could help us in our viper quest. And yes, Anniek spotted an invididual fleeing into a wall. We checked the spot again a few times, but the snake did not show again. Daniel left home already, fearing that we would find more vipers after his departure, which did not happen.

wiper < > viper

Peter - © Daniel Bohle

May 5th - Iblei

Because we had enough of the frustrating viper searching, we decided to spend our final day south, visiting some spots hinted by Peter Oefinger. Two nice places with Sicilian Wall Lizard, plus some uniformly coloured Italian Wall Lizards, Western Whip Snake, Moorish Gecko, Ocellated Skink and Hermann’s Tortoise. Then, a bit north to the Anapo river. Hot weather now. Nearly all Italian Wall Lizards here were uniformly coloured ones. At the river already some nice dragonflies, of which the one portrayed below has been hardly documented from Sicily. Because we still had some time to spare, we made a quick stop along the San Leonardo river, which turned out to be an uninteresting place to stop, yet with Italian Wall Lizard, Edible Frog, Western Whip and Grass Snake. After that, we left for Catania airport, saying goodbye to Leonard and Guido, who stayed on for a couple more days.

our last breakfast

Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus)

Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus)

Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus)

Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus)

Onychogomphus uncatus

Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus) - in the wider Sortino area looking mostly like this, apparently


The overall list of species that we could observe shows a very nice result. We have cracked our skulls for explanations for the low number of vipers, without being able to really nail it. We have been in so many good and/or known viper areas, without nothing much. The Italian Aesculapian Snake seems to occupy a wider niche than its close relative e.g. in the Balkans, but we cannot rule out that we found that many because of our timing. In any case, we have never found more than 10 Aesculapian Snakes (Zamenis longissimus) on a single trip.

Guido, Benny, Malaka, Gijs, Daniel, Anniek, Jan shooting a green toad, Peter, Leonard, me - © Daniel Bohle

List of the observed species

1. Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra gigliolii)
2. Southern Spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina terdigitata)
3. Italian Newt (Lissotriton italicus)
4. Painted Frog (Discoglossus pictus)
5. Yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina (variegata) pachypus)
6. Common Toad (Bufo bufo spinosus)
7. Green Toad (Bufo (viridis) balearicus and Bufo (viridis) siculus)
8. Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia)
9. Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae bergeri)
10. Edible Frog (Pelophylax kl. esculentus hispanicus)
11. water frog sp. (Pelophylax ridibundus s.l.) - exogenous
12. Agile Frog (Rana dalmatina)
13. Italian Stream Frog (Rana italica)
14. Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni hermanni)
15. European Pond Terrapin (Emys (orbicularis) trinacris)
16. terrapin species (Pseudemys sp.) - exogenous
17. Moorish Gecko (Tarentola mauritanica)
18. Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)
19. Western Green Lizard (Lacerta bilineata chloronota)
20. Common Wall Lizard (Podarcis muralis breviceps)
21. Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis siculus siculus)
22. Sicilian Wall Lizard (Podarcis waglerianus)
23. Aeolian Wall Lizard (Podarcis raffonei alvearioi)
24. Ocellated Skink (Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu)
25. Italian Three-toed Skink (Chalcides chalcides chalcides)
26. Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis s.l.)
27. Western Whip Snake (Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius)
28. Italian Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis lineatus)
29. Smooth Snake (Coronella austriaca fitzingeri)
30. Grass Snake (Natrix natrix sicula)
31. Asp Viper (Vipera aspis hugyi)

What we missed …

We missed two snake species, perhaps in part because of attributing a lot of our time to viper searching.
1. Four-lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)
2. Leopard Snake (Zamenis situla)
No other species are (naturally) present in the visited areas, but some occur closeby. Alpine Newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris), Italian Crested Newt (Triturus carnifex) and Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata) are known from more northern locations in Calabria. Southern Smooth Snake (Coronella girondica) has an unclear southern distribution limit. African Clawed Toad (Xenopus laevis) has spread throughout a not visited area in Sicily. Other introductions can of course never be ruled out.

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Last update: December 05, 2023 12:46:03